The Injection Molding Machine Working Principle
The Plastic Injection Molding Process
1. Basic functions of injection molding machine
② apply high pressure on the melt to inject it and fill the cavity.
2. Injection molding process/equipment
3. How injection molding machine works?
Introduction to injection molding: The injection device mainly realizes the functions of plasticizing, metering, injection, and pressure maintaining and shrinking in the process of high precision plastic injection molding. The screw injection device is the most used, it is made by unifying the screw plasticizing and injection plunger into one screw.
In essence, it should be called a coaxial reciprocating rod injection device. When it is working, the plastic in the hopper falls into the heating barrel by its weight. Through the rotation of the screw, the plastic moves forward along the screw groove. At this time, the material is heated by the external heater of the heating barrel, and inside cutting the temperature rises to a molten state.
With the storage of materials at the front end of the heating barrel, the reaction force (back pressure) generated by these materials pushes the screw backward, and the limit switch is used to limit the amount of retreat. When it retracts to a certain position, the screw stops rotating, which (Measurement) is determined by the amount of injection at one time.
After the material in the mold is cooled, once the product is taken out, the mold is closed again to enter the injection molding process. At this time, the hydraulic cylinder (injection cylinder) of the injection device exerts a force on the screw, and the screw becomes an injection rod under high pressure. The melt is injected into the mold from the nozzle.
The screw injection device comprises a screw, barrel, nozzle, and driving device. The injection screw is generally divided into three stages: feeding, compression, and metering, with a compression ratio of 2 to 3 and a length-to-diameter ratio of 16 to 18. When the melt is ejected from the nozzle because the injection force on the pressurized melt is afraid of the reaction force, a part of the melt will flow back to the rear through the screw groove. To prevent this phenomenon, a check valve is installed at the end of the screw. For rigid PVC, a conical screw head is used.
- The barrel is the part that contains the screw, which is heat-resistant. Made of high-pressure resistant steel. Install an array of electric heating coils on the periphery of the barrel to heat the material in the barrel, and use a thermocouple to control the temperature so that the plastic has an appropriate temperature.
- The nozzle is the transition part connecting the barrel and the mold, and an independent heating ring is installed on it because it is an important part that directly affects the melting of the plastic. Generally, open nozzles are used for injection molding for low-viscosity polyamides and a needle valve nozzle is used.
- The rotation of the drive screw can be driven by an electric motor or a hydraulic motor, and the reciprocating movement of the screw is realized by hydraulic pressure.
The parameters of the injection molding machine characterized by the injection device are: the injection volume refers to the maximum amount that the injection molding machine can inject into the mold each time, which can be expressed by the quality of the injected polystyrene melt or the volume of the injected melt; the injection pressure refers to the pressure exerted on the section of the barrel during injection; the injection speed refers to the moving speed of the screw during the injection.
4. Mold clamping device
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